The Conservatives won 318 seats in the election, eight short of an outright majority. Her weakened position in the party rules out big changes, and May's office has said that the most senior Cabinet members including Treasury chief Philip Hammond, Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson and Home Secretary Amber Rudd will keep their jobs, but she is expected to shuffle the lower ranks of ministers.
Mrs May's only hope of forming a government is to win the support of Northern Ireland's Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), which won 10 seats.
Meanwhile the supposed loser, Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn, savored a surprisingly strong result and basked in the adulation of an energized, youthful base.
Corbyn, who reiterated his party's commitment to Brexit, said the amendment would include an emphasis on jobs in the Brexit talks and a guarantee of the rights of European Union nationals to stay in UK.
"If we're going to have a leadership contest in the Conservative Party what we can not do is have another coronation", she said, referring to May's leadership, which was not put to the members of the Conservative Party and instead was only voted on by the party's lawmakers.
Another Conservative MP, Tom Tugendhat, said: "I joined a party that introduced equal marriage, backs civil rights and defends freedom of faith".
Speaking after meeting the Queen at Buckingham Palace, she said she intends to form a government that will provide "certainty" and guide the country through Brexit talks. Current projections give the DUP 10 seats in the House of Commons and the Conservatives 319, enough to form a working majority. May had called the election to build upon her majority; instead, the party lost it.
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SCULLY: Well, the Democratic Unionists are a party which strongly believes in Northern Ireland continuing to remain within the United Kingdom.
A confidence and supply deal would mean them backing the Government on its Budget and confidence motions, but could potentially lead to other issues being decided on a vote-by-vote basis.
Several hundred people many Labour voters protested in central London against the potential alliance, with one organiser leading chants of "racist, sexist, anti-gay, the DUP has got to go".
It's been reported that the Prime Minister faced a leadership challenge if she didn't get rid of them. "That's not a matter for me", she said.
Joining forces with the hardline Protestant party also threatens London's neutrality in Northern Ireland, which is key to the delicate balance of power in a province once plagued by violence.
Liberal Democrats gained four seats to amass 12 MPs, but lost its former leader and ex-deputy prime minister Nick Clegg in perhaps the highest-profile casualty in a night of stunning results. Allen said she couldn't see May hanging on for "more than six months". "From hubris to humiliation", said the left-leaning Guardian, while the Times headline read: "May stares into the abyss".
"I think its quite possible there'll be an election later this year or early next year, and that might be a good thing, because we can not go on with a period of great instability", he told the BBC's Andrew Marr on Sunday.