In this EPA photo, Park Sung-hyun of South Korea cries after sinking the clinching putt on the second playoff hole to win the KPMG Women's PGA Championship at Kemper Lakes Golf Course in Kildeer, Illinois, on July 1, 2018.
Park and Ryu each birdied the first playoff hole before Park sealed the win with a birdie on the second extra hole.
Ryu won the 2011 U.S. Women's Open and 2017 ANA Inspiration for her major victories.
The birdie-birdie finish made it five for Park on the day after a bogey-free round that included a remarkable par save at No. 16, where she chipped out of tall grass at the edge of the water to about 3 feet.
The back-to-back birdies by Ryu and two late bogeys by Henderson turned things in a hurry.
"Just drew it a little bit too much, " said the outgoing Ryu, beaten but unbowed.
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Hataoka ultimately fell at the first playoff hole, a flat ending to a day that had started with her nine strokes off the lead.
Opening-day leader Park followed her first-round 66 with an even 72, as Henderson joined the South Korean at the top of the leaderboard in a mixed day that saw her hit four bogeys and five birdies, finishing her round on one-under-par 71.
"Everything went so well today", Park said in a televised interview before her victory ceremony. "I had trouble with my putts, and I couldn't pick up the momentum". "I can't still believe that I'm sitting right next to this trophy".
And nobody had ever shot lower than 65 in the final round of this championship, which inherited the LPGA Championship records going back to 1955.
Angel Yin (68) was fourth at 6-under and Bronte Law (69) was 5-under. She was already off the course when Ryu made a 30-foot birdie putt on the 16th hole to go two strokes up at 12 under.
But that lead disappeared on the very next hole, the par-3 17th, where Ryu found water off the tee.
The way she putted, though, the putter was probably the club she wanted to take to the woodshed. But a birdie on 18 gave her a strong finish despite the heat. And with storms in the forecast on Sunday, organizers made a decision to adjust the tee times and have groups of three start on the first and 10th holes. Park's putter used to be 34 inches long, but she shortened it to 33 inches.