Other Astros getting the nod are outfielder George Springer and third baseman Alex Bregman.
The game is set for Tuesday, July 17 in Washington D.C.'s Nationals Park.
Altuve will start at second base for the American League squad for the 4th consecutive season while making his 6th All-Star appearance overall. Martinez, Mike Trout, Jose Altuve, Jose Abreu, Wilson Ramos, Manny Machado and Jose Ramirez.
The National League starting team will feature the likes of Freddie Freeman, Willson Contreras, Brandon Crawford, Nick Markakis, Nolan Arenado and Matt Kemp.
Besides Kluber, Sale, Bauer, Verlander and Cole, the starting pitchers for the American League include Luis Severino of the New York Yankees, J.A. Happ of the Toronto Blue Jays and Jose Berrios of the Minnesota Twins.
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The odd one out in the semifinals had been Goerges, a late bloomer who was playing in her first major semifinal at the age of 29. Saturday's final will be a re-match of the 2016 showpiece, which Williams won.
Nationals starter Max Scherzer highlights the starting pitchers for the National League, along Jacob deGrom of the New York Mets, Aaron Nola of the Philadelphia Phillies, Miles Mikolas of the St. Louis Cardinals, Jon Lester of the Chicago Cubs, Patrick Corbin of the Arizona Diamondbacks and the aforementioned Foltynewicz.
This selection process was made up of 8 position players decided by the fans, 16 player decided by the player's ballots - 5 pitchers, 3 relievers and 1 substitute for each position; and 7 players decided by the MLB Commissioner's office - 3 position and 4 pitchers.
Astros Manager AJ Hinch will become just the second skipper in franchise history to manage an All-Star Game, joining Phil Garner, who guided the 2006 NL All-Star team.