The natural disaster, which struck on Sunday evening near the neighbouring island of Lombok, killed scores of people and injured many more.
The U.S. Geological Survey measured the quake at magnitude 5.9. That number is expected to rise.
Officials said about three-quarters of Lombok's rural north had been without electricity since Sunday, although power had since been restored in most areas.
Thursday's quake could be felt on Bali, another popular Indonesian resort island west of Lombok.
The aftershock comes just four days after a devastating 6.9-magnitude quake struck Lombok, which relief agencies said had wiped out entire villages in the worst-hit regions in the north and west.
A humanitarian crisis is also looming in Lombok, where thousands have been left homeless and in desperate need of clean water, food, medicine and shelter.
Cleanup and rescue efforts are still continuing on the island, following the previous quakes.
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Almost 2,500 people have been taken to hospital with serious injuries and upwards of 156,000 people are displaced due to the extensive damage to homes.
Water, which has been in short supply due to a prolonged dry spell on the island, as well as food and medical supplies were being distributed from trucks. Tens of thousands are now sleeping out in the open or in the ruins of their homes.
Rescuers have found three bodies and also managed to pull one man alive from the twisted wreckage of the mosque, reduced to a pile of concrete and metal bars, with its towering green dome folded in on itself.
Indonesia, which sits on the Pacific Ring of Fire, is regularly hit by earthquakes.
More than 345 people are now reported to have died in the wake of the 7.0-magnitude quake which struck the island of Lombok last week, and many have taken to social media to show their support or reach out to friends and family.
This photograph, taken by Gibratlarian Sarah Perera, shows the dramatic evacuation of people from Gili Trawangan after it was hit by an natural disaster on Sunday.