Sources quoted her as saying, she had to go because the alleged forgery of her National Youth Service Corps Certificate made her position as Minister untenable.
Adeosun, a top cabinet member and a former investment banker who promoted the government's policy to boost growth following a recent recession, said in a statement that she believed she was exempt from the service scheme but felt bound to resign because of the administration's "focus on integrity".
She said, "having never worked in NYSC, visited the premises, been privy to nor familiar with their operations, I had no reason to suspect that the certificate was anything but genuine".
But a day after she stepped down, Adeosun, who was born and raised in England, departed the country with no news from the Nigerian authorities on the possibility of her prosecution.
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Gottlieb called the action "historic" and said it was the largest coordinated enforcement effort in the agency's history. Also, the agency is probing manufacturer's online shops for "straw" purchases in which buyers resell products to minors.
"The party invites Nigerians to note that President Muhammadu Buhari, whose administration has become notorious for shielding its many fraudulent and corrupt officials, could not summon the rectitude to sack Mrs. Adeosun, adding that she would have still been in office, if not for the sustained uproar by Nigerians and worldwide creditors".
Adeosun was appointed by Buhari to manage the finances of Africa's biggest economy in November 2015.
But an internal investigation showed that it was forged. Her main policy was a bid to improve tax collection and crack down on mismanagement by government agencies.
NYSC is a one-year mandatory national service for graduates below the age of 30 from universities across Africa's most populous nation.