India was vying for the seat in the Asia-Pacific category. The group cited the administration's drug war, citing more than 12,000 suspected drug dealers have been killed in anti-drug operations - a huge jump from the government data showing 4,000 have been neutralized - as well as the attacks on human rights defenders.
The new members will serve a term of three years beginning January 1, 2019.
The United States pulled out of the council in June, calling the organization a "hypocritical" body that "makes a mockery of human rights", in particular in regard to its stance on Israel.
Ahead of the elections, India's Permanent Representatives to the UN Ambassador Syed Akbaruddin had tweeted that, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Fiji and India and the Philippines stake claim to 5 seats for Aisa-Pacific region at UNHRC.
Needing 97 votes to become a member of the top rights body of the UN, Bangladesh secured 178 votes.
The 193-member UN General Assembly held elections here for new members to the UN Human Rights Council.
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The body was created in 2006 to replace the UN Commission on Human Rights which was discredited by governments and aid organisations because of the presence of human rights violators. The 18 new members were elected by absolute majority through a secret ballot.
It said Human Rights Council member states should seek to neutralise any attempts by its "worst members to shield themselves and other serial rights abusers & keep doing good work on #Yemen, #Myanmar, #Syria, #Burundi & other crises".
The new members elected Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Eritrea, Somalia and Togo in the African States category, Bulgaria and Czech Republic in the Eastern European States group, Argentina, Bahamas and Uruguay in the Latin American and Caribbean States group and Austria, Denmark and Italy in the Western European and other States category.
Outgoing US ambassador to the UN, Nicki Haley, said on Friday that "this lack of standards continues to undermine the organisation and demonstrates again why the United States was right to withdraw from it earlier this year".
"The United States will continue to support reforms that would make the Human Rights' Council credible".
The commission added it would "continue to perform its mandate of helping United Nations to monitor the human rights situation" as the country's independent human rights institution. In Cameroon, rights activists say civilians have been subjected to abuses amid fighting between English-speaking separatists and government security forces, and it is thought that thousands of people who fled the violence were unable to vote in Sunday's presidential election.